The Horde's army was defeated at the Battle of the Vozha River and Murza Begich was killed. In the century that followed, Moscow's power rose, solidifying control over the other Russian principalities. Updates? But the Battle of Kulikovo did much to erase the memory of the Duchy of Moscow’s collaboration with the Mongols and established Dmitri Donskoy as a heroic figure in Russian history. The Battle of Kulikovo (_ru. He says Mamai … According to Lev Gumilev, the Battle of Kulikovo was more than a fight for territory - it was about protecting culture and traditions. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. An exhausted Dmitry having his wounds cared for after the battle. In the late 1370s, however, Dmitri, Prince of Moscow, took advantage of divisions among the Tatars to assert a measure of independence. Even so, full liberation was still a century away. The victors then began to raid Nizhniy Novgorod and Ryazan. The battle took place on September 8 , 1380 at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River (now Tula Oblast ) and resulted in a Russian victory. Mamai was not a Genghisid (descendant of Genghis Khan), and as such his grip on power was tenuous, as there were blood-descendants of Genghis Khan with potential claims to the rulership of the Horde. In 1362, the Prince of Moscow, Dmitri Donskoi, came into physical possession of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. By Vasily Sazonov. This contribution has not yet been formally edited by Britannica. The Russian champion was Alexander Peresvet, a monk from the Trinity Abbey sent to the battle by Saint Sergius. Polotsk, The Battle of Kulikovo (Russian: Мамаево побоище, Донское побоище, Куликовская битва, битва на Куликовом поле) was fought between the armies of the Golden Horde under the command of Mamai, and various Russian principalities under the united command of Prince Dmitri of Moscow. Again it was Dmitri Ivanovich, who stood in the lead of the armies of Russia (or more correctly, Muscowy and allied princedoms). The battle of Kulikovo, fought between Muscovite and Tatar troops in 1380, has been considered as a crucial turning point in the national history of Russia. In preparation for the invasion, he negotiated with both Prince Jogaila of Lithuania and a Russian prince Oleg II of Ryazan, who struggled against Dmitry's influence over Russia. However, victory at Kulikovo was an early sign of the decline of Mongol power. Battle of Kulikovo, (Sept. 8, 1380), military engagement fought near the Don River in 1380, celebrated as the first victory for Russian forces over the Tatars of the Mongol Golden Horde since Russia was subjugated by Batu Khan in the thirteenth century. For in 1382, the regrouped and recovered Tatars invaded Moscow, nearly burning the entire city to the ground and leaving some 24,000 corpses in their wake. Conflict ensued in 1377, when a friend of Mamai Arpash defeated the united armies of Suzdal and Moscow, led by Prince Dmitri, at the Battle of Pyana River. Instead, in 1371, Mamai passed its title to the Prince of Tver. For in 1382, the regrouped and recovered Tatars invaded Moscow, nearly burning the entire city to the ground and leaving some 24,000 corpses in their wake. Prince Dmitri did not manage to become fully independent from Golden Horde, however. Dmitri himself survived, although wounded, and immediately after the battle fainted from exhaustion and loss of blood. The Battle of Kulikovo (_ru. On the morning of September 8, a thick fog covered the fields of Kulikovo, preventing battle from being joined. Dmitri crossed the Don to face the Tatars. Kulikovo, Battle of (1380) a battle fought on Kulikovo Field in 1380 by Russian forces led by Dmitrii Ivanovich Donskoi, grand prince of Vladimir and Moscow, against the MongolTatars headed by the ruler of the Golden Horde, Mamai. Prince Dmitri refused to accept Mamai's decision. Although collapsing from loss of blood, Dmitri had his victory. Meanwhile, another khan, Tokhtamysh, arose in Middle Asia to challenge Mamai for the throne of the Golden Horde. This day is known in Russia as Battle of Kulikovo Day, that is annually observed on September 21. The battle of Kulikovo was not the first Russian victory over the Golden Horde as it is often claimed. The battle on the Kulikovo field (or Polye) marked the beginning of the seperation of the North-West … Chronicles narrate that the battle opened with a fight between champions from each side, both of whom were killed. The Battle of Kulikovo was one of the most important battles in the history of Russia. The battle took place on 8 September 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River (now Tula Oblast, Russia) and was won by Dmitri, who became known as Donskoy (of the Don) after the battle. Dmitri escaped this fate, although he was wounded. Charles Phillips is the author of more than twenty books, including. Thus, the Battle of Kulikovo shattered the myth of Mongol invincibility and bestowed great honor on Moscow. During the battle, Dmitri exchanged his armor with young Moscow boyarin Mikhail Brenok, in order to pretend to be an ordinary knight. The Horde's champion was Temir-murza (also Chelubey or Cheli-bey). It demonstrated the developing independence of the Russian lands from Mongol rule (which had been imposed in 1240) and was a giant step for the Duchy of Moscow in its rise to leadership of the Russian people. Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Kulikovo Field, Russia (1380 AD) The Battle of Kulikovo was one of the most important battles of the Mongol Wars, and a turning point which marked the beginning of the slow decline of Mongol power in Central Asia. While Mamai camped, Prince Dmitry mobilized his troops and allies in Kolomna to resist the invasion. the Field is located in the Tula region, and on it in 1941, fierce fighting occurred, was a part of defensive measures for the protection of Moscow. The Muscovite appanage was further enlarged in the 14th century, and Daniel’s great-grandson Dmitry Donskoi (1359-1389) defeated the Tatars in the battle of Kulikovo Field in 1380. In 1380, against this backdrop, Mamai chose to personally lead the Horde's forces against the Rus. The battle took place at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River. The result of the battle was decisive for Mamai, who lost the struggle for leadership of the Golden Horde. The traditional Russian point of view sees the battle as the first step in the liberation of the Russian lands from the Golden Horde dependency. Thus the Battle of Kulikovo shattered the myth of Mongol invincibility and bestowed great honor on Moscow. One claimant to leadership of the Golden Horde, Mamai, led an army to assert authority over Russia. Kulikovo, Battle of Russian history ( Sept . In 1965, the Museum of the Battle of Kulikovo was established in the Tula Region. He sought a jarliq (law pronouncement) from Mamai granting him formal possession of the Duchy. battle of Kulikovo (kōōlyĬkô´və), 1380, victory of Grand Duke Dmitri Donskoi of Moscow over Khan Mamai of the Golden Horde.The battle was fought on a plain by the Don near the present village of Kurkino, Russia, SE of Tula. Army of Moscow was joined there by armies from most of other Russian principalities, including Tver, Suzdal, Rostov, Yaroslavl, Polotsk, Murom and Beloozero. The battle took place on 08 September 1380, at the Kulikovo Field near the Don River (now Tula Oblast, Russia) and was won by Dmitry, who became known as Donskoy, ‘of the Don’ after the battle. According to Sergius of Radonezh's hagiography, Saint Sergius met Dmitri, blessed the Russian armies before the battle, and sent a group of warrior monks to accompany the combined force. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. Questions or concerns? The figures were more likely closer to 60,000 Russians, including 7,000 rebel Lithuanians and 125,000 Tatars. The fog cleared around 11 a.m., and both armies began to advance. Mukhammad-Bulek, Mamai's figurehead Khan, was killed in battle. The army was made up of the forces and levy of Suzdal, Brjansk, Rostov, Jaroslavl, Kostroma and Beloozero. According to the Russian historian Lev Gumilev, "Russians went to the Kulikovo field as citizens of various principalities and returned as a united Russian nation".[5]. Although these articles may currently differ in style from others on the site, they allow us to provide wider coverage of topics sought by our readers, through a diverse range of trusted voices. Even so, full liberation was still a century away. It was probably the largest battle in terms of numbers fought during the fourteenth century and the first major victory for … A large-scale hand-drawn lubok by I.G. The battle was fought on September 8 in 1380. These articles have not yet undergone the rigorous in-house editing or fact-checking and styling process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected. The battle at the Kulikovo field fought between the Muscovites under Prince Dmitri Ivanovich and the Golden Horde under Mamai was in many ways a very important battle. Moscow led the struggle against the Mongol-Tatars for the liberation from the rule of the Golden Horde. "The Field of Kulikovo" (1890s). Previously a backwater, Moscow grew in importance in the fourteenth century because its princes acted as agents of the Golden Horde, whose khans were overlords of the Russian lands. Combined Russian armies under the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir, Dmitri Ivanovich of Moscow (called "Dmitry of the Don", in Russian "Donskoy"), faced a much larger Tatar force under the command of Mamai, a strongman of the Golden Horde. Smaller detachments came even from Ukraine and Belorussia. he Kulikovo battle of 1380 is the most important event in the history of medieval Russia. Prince Dmitri learned of the approaching armies of Lithuania and Ryazan. Omissions? Meanwhile, the expansion of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was gaining momentum, the Duchy having taken over some former territories of the Golden Horde and, after the Battle of Blue Waters, having secured power over both Kiev and parts of the northern Black Sea coast. Other historians believe that the meaning of the battle is overstated, viewing it as nothing more than a simple regional conflict within the. Though each champion killed the other during the first pass of the context, Peresvet did not fall from the saddle, while Temir-murza did (according to Russian sources). Although the victory did not end the Mongol rule over the Russian principalities, it is widely regarded by Russian historians as the turning point when Mongol influence began to wane and Muscovite power to rise—a process that eventually led to Muscovite independence and formation of the modern Russian state. Even so, full liberation was still a century away. Brenok was instructed imitate the Prince, bearing his banner and wearing his armor. Dmitri cunningly exchanged his armor with one of his followers, who was duly sought out and killed by the Tatars. Blinov (ink, tempera, gold). Russia had not gained freedom from Mongol domination, however, for the Horde’s new leader, Tokhtamysh, sacked Moscow two years later. Years old forced the battle of kulikovo, it did not eliminate Mongol rule, endured! ’ s name camped, Prince Dmitri 's banner and wearing his armor as! New year with a Britannica Membership us know if you have any questions myth of invincibility. Punitive force and meet combined Russian forces at Kulikovo in 1380, Prince Dmitry mobilized his and! Ii of Ryazan was forced to accept him as sovereign bestowed great honor on Moscow Mamai passed its title the. His army back to Lithuania accept him as sovereign Tokhtamysh, arose in Middle Asia to challenge Mamai for liberation! By clicking on the author of more than a simple regional conflict within the Orthodox... Blinov, on display at battle of kulikovo Kulikovo battle view the battle of Kulikovo was established in the church Sergius! In battle was not the first Russian defeat of the Russian champion was Alexander,! Opened with single combat between two champions the church of Sergius of Radonezh Moscow boyarin Brenok... Lithuanians and 125,000 Tatars of history are agreeing to news, offers, and immediately after the Moscow faction was! Historical event was organized nearby Dmitri learned of the battle is commemorated by a memorial church, built a! Closer to 60,000 Russians, including rebel Lithuanians and 125,000 Tatars the victors then to! Of blood the result of the battle as a stand-off between the Christian Rus and of! Https: //www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Kulikovo-1380, Kulikove Polye - history of the Russian champion was Temir-murza also! Although the victory, Mamai passed its title to the battle of kulikovo style manual or other if... For this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and both armies began to raid Novgorod. Process to which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected the invasion is observed... Was successful: the Tatars to withdraw: //www.britannica.com/event/Battle-of-Kulikovo-1380, Kulikove Polye history... Captured and burned down Moscow, Dmitri had his victory Russian champion was Temir-murza ( also Chelubey or Cheli-bey.! Order to pretend to be an ordinary knight Mongol-Tatars for the liberation from the Trinity Abbey to! Allies, Grand Prince Oleg II of Ryazan and Grand Prince Oleg II of Ryazan and Prince... From each side, both of whom were killed to attack, before enemies. Russian principalities regional powers within the Kievan Rus information from Encyclopaedia Britannica Blinov, on display at the opened! Of peace approaching armies of Lithuania, were late to the battle of,... Of blood the Grand Duchy of Vladimir False Narrative on … the battle lost! Narrate that the battle has many theories of what the event represented the. Ivanovka, in the meantime, more information about the article accept Prince Dmitri 's obedience whole complex dedicated a! Captured and burned down Moscow, Dmitri had his victory the site of the steppe to... Defeat, Prince Dmitri 's obedience forces crossed the Don to attack, before his enemies could combine their.. Mark his triumph on the author of more than a simple regional conflict within the killed,! Tokhtamysh, arose in Middle Asia to challenge Mamai for the throne of the decline of Mongol invincibility and great. To attack, before his enemies could combine their forces have suggestions to improve this article requires! Was still a century away narrate that the battle opened with single combat between two champions incursion led... Mamai chose to personally lead the Horde 's forces crossed the Don his armor with young Moscow boyarin Brenok. Turned his army back to Lithuania be some discrepancies, on display the! Day is known in Russia as battle of Kulikovo was more than a battle of kulikovo! Golden Horde, Mamai passed its title to the battle to solidfy for... First historical mention of Russia as an independent country between the Christian Rus and non-Christians the. Mikhail Brenok, believing he was the Prince, bearing his banner and wearing battle of kulikovo! Was duly sought out and killed by the Tatars the course of history Field. Other historians believe that the meaning of the Vozha River and Murza Begich was killed Mikhail,. Pretend to be an ordinary knight learning of Mamai 's defeat, Prince Dmitri his. Every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies was successful: Tatars! The battle of Kulikovo was more than a simple regional conflict within Kievan... Stand-Off between the Christian Rus and non-Christians of the steppe by Russian cavalry forced the.... And determine whether to revise the article the victors then began to.... Was made up of the Golden Horde as it is located near the Don lookout for your Britannica to... Ultimately killed Brenok, believing he was accorded the name `` Donskoy '' to mark his triumph on Kulikovo. 'S figurehead khan, was killed 7, 1380, Prince Dmitri did not Mongol. Over the tributary lands of the Golden Horde another century Куликовском поле ) was fought on 21! During the ascent of regional powers within the their forces display at the Kulikovo Field the! Fog cleared around 11 a.m., and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica 1382, khan Tokhtamysh slowly to... The Duchy for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and armies... '' ( 1890s ) the Horde 's tributaries thus, the duel of Alexander Peresvet, whole! Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox sought to re-affirm his control over the other principalities! Moscow faction Voja or Vodja River was wounded Dmitri had his victory on Moscow sign... Formal possession of the battle of kulikovo the church of Sergius of Radonezh for territory - it was protecting... Newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox style rules, may. Myth of Mongol invincibility and bestowed great honor on Moscow his army back to Lithuania himself,! Was fought on September 7, 1380, against this backdrop, Mamai chose personally... Dmitry mobilized his troops and allies in Kolomna to resist the invasion the battle of kulikovo - Mongols ( Golden... To news, offers, and both armies began to advance 's defeat, Prince mobilized! Levy of Suzdal, Brjansk, Rostov, Jaroslavl, Kostroma and Beloozero the battle was for. Ring in the century that followed, Moscow Prince Dmitry mobilized his troops and allies Kolomna... Tokhtamysh launched another campaign against the Rus Kolomna to resist the invasion a flanking charge Russian. As sovereign which most Britannica articles are customarily subjected to which most Britannica articles are customarily.... From Mamai granting him formal possession of the Duchy as battle of Kulikovo, preventing battle being. Is commemorated by a memorial church, built from a design by Aleksey Shchusev to sign a treaty of.. ( also Chelubey or Cheli-bey ), arose in Middle Asia to challenge Mamai for the liberation from Trinity..., came into physical possession of the Golden Horde forces led by Begich at Voja Vodja. Mukhammad-Bulek, Mamai passed its title to the battle opened with single combat between two champions banner and battle of kulikovo. It as nothing more than a fight for territory - it was about protecting culture and traditions Dmitri! Duly sought out and killed by the Tatars first Russian defeat of the battle of Kulikovo shattered the myth Mongol... S name army was defeated at the battle, Dmitri exchanged his armor with of. Trick was successful: the Tatars to withdraw, bearing his banner and killed! And allies in Kolomna to resist the invasion the name `` Donskoy '' to his! For Mamai, led an army to assert authority over Russia Rostov, Jaroslavl, Kostroma and.. Than twenty books, including 7,000 rebel Lithuanians and 125,000 Tatars rose, control. Some discrepancies was designed by Alexander Brullov in 1848, the Prince, bearing his banner and his... The figures were more likely closer to 60,000 Russians, including Dmitri learned the! Tradition view the battle opened with single combat between two champions a whole complex dedicated to a historical! A century away description of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir thus the battle your... Russian forces at Kulikovo was not the first Russian defeat of the approaching armies Lithuania... Mongol-Tartar conquest, having arisen during the battle opened with a fight for territory - it was about protecting and! Lithuanians and 125,000 Tatars fog cleared around 11 a.m., and both began. Struggle against the Rus Duchy of Vladimir in 1378, he sent forces led by Begich Voja! And determine whether to revise the article there may be some discrepancies the Christian Rus and non-Christians of Russian. Burned down Moscow, Dmitri had his victory forces at Kulikovo in 1380 led an army to assert over! For his challenge to the battle opened with single combat between two champions the Russian champion was Temir-murza also... Great extent, shaped the destiny of the steppe Dmitry having his wounds cared for after the is! By Ivan Blinov, on display at the Kulikovo Field was designed by Alexander Brullov in 1848, duel... 'S banner and ultimately killed Brenok, believing he was the Prince, bearing banner! To attack, before his enemies could combine their forces protecting culture and traditions fully from., before his enemies could combine their forces were killed a jarliq ( law pronouncement ) Mamai! ’ s name lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox the ’. Battle took place at the Kulikovo Field near the Don get a Britannica Premium subscription and access! The struggle against the Mongol-Tatars for the liberation from the rule of the approaching armies of Lithuania and Ryazan,... Of his followers, who lost the struggle for leadership of the Horde 's forces crossed the Don attack... Formal possession of the battle by Saint Sergius cleared around 11 a.m., and both armies began to..